Demystifying Acne: Exploring Types and Unveiling Effective Solutions for Clear, Glowing Skin


Acne, medically known as acne vulgaris, is a prevalent skin condition that affects the oil glands located at the base of hair follicles.. It is an infection that commonly emerges during puberty when the sebaceous (oil) glands become active due to the influence of male hormones produced by the adrenal glands in both males and females. Acne vulgaris, meaning “common acne,” arises from changes in the sebaceous glands and leads to skin inflammation, characterized by the appearance of redness. 

While acne may initially appear as a superficial concern, its impact extends far beyond the physical symptoms. Acne can have significant social consequences, affecting an individual’s self-esteem, confidence, and overall well-being. The presence of acne lesions, particularly on visible areas such as the face, neck, or chest, can trigger feelings of self-consciousness, embarrassment, and the fear of being judged by others.

In a society that often places great emphasis on physical appearance, acne can create a sense of insecurity and self-doubt. Individuals with acne may experience social anxiety and withdrawal, leading to a negative impact on their quality of life. The emotional toll of acne can be profound, causing frustration, depression, and a loss of self-worth.

The social impact of acne extends beyond personal relationships and can affect various aspects of an individual’s life. In educational settings, adolescents with acne may face bullying, teasing, or social exclusion from their peers, further exacerbating their emotional distress. Similarly, adults with acne in the workplace may encounter discrimination or challenges in career advancement due to the perceived negative association with blemished skin.


Acne arises when the skin’s pores become obstructed by a combination of sebum (skin oil), dead skin cells, and bacteria. Each pore acts as an entry point for a hair follicle and an oil-producing gland. The gland releases sebum, which serves to moisturize and safeguard the skin. However, disruptions in this natural lubrication process, such as excessive sebum production, can lead to pore blockages.

When a thin layer of skin covers the blocked pore, it presents as a whitehead. Conversely, when the pore remains open and exposed to air, the trapped mixture oxidizes and darkens, resulting in a blackhead. As the clogged follicle continues to accumulate debris, it gradually swells, giving rise to a raised bump on the skin’s surface. The increasing pressure within the follicle can cause its wall to rupture, permitting bacteria to penetrate deeper layers of the skin. This invasion triggers an immune response, leading to inflammation and the formation of pustules. In more severe cases, the inflammation can extend further into the skin, resulting in the development of painful cysts, which may leave behind permanent scars.

The primary causes of pimple formation involve the excessive production of sebum, the accumulation of dead skin cells within the pores, and the presence of bacteria. When bacteria proliferate within the blocked pore, and the trapped sebum cannot escape, a zit emerges.


Acne Vulgaris

  • Acne vulgaris, the most prevalent form of acne, typically emerges during puberty but can persist into the twenties, thirties, and beyond. It commonly appears on the face, neck, chest, and back, though it can occur throughout the body. 

Various types of lesions are commonly associated with acne vulgaris:

  • Papules: These are inflamed, tender red bumps on the skin that lack a visible head. Squeezing papules can lead to scarring and does not expedite their healing process.
  • Whiteheads: Resulting from complete blockage of pores, whiteheads appear as small, white bumps on the skin’s surface. They often respond well to over-the-counter acne products.
  • Blackheads: Partially blocked pores give rise to blackheads, where trapped bacteria, oil, and dead skin slowly rise to the skin’s surface, forming dark spots due to the reaction between melanin and oxygen. Blackheads typically take longer to clear than whiteheads.
  • Pustules: Pustules are the most common acne lesion type. They appear as inflamed, red circles with white or yellow centers. While they can be popped at home, it is important to avoid touching them with bare hands and ensure any material used is sterile. Acne medications tend to be more effective after the pustule has been extracted.
  • Nodules: Severe acne often leads to nodules, which are hard, deep bumps under the skin that can last for months. Nodular acne frequently causes scarring, necessitating proper treatment from a dermatologist.

Acne Conglobata

  • Acne Conglobata represents a severe form of acne vulgaris characterized by large interconnected lesions. Patients with acne conglobata may also have blackheads. It predominantly affects males between 18 and 30 years old and can result in permanent skin damage. Common locations include the face, back, chest, upper arms, and thighs. Strong medications such as Accutane are usually recommended, and dermatological consultation is essential for appropriate treatment.

Acne Fulminans

  • When acne conglobata rapidly worsens, it is referred to as acne fulminans. This type of acne often becomes ulcerated, and severe scarring is common. Symptoms may include joint pain and fever. Standard acne treatments, such as antibiotics, are typically ineffective, but oral steroids and/or Accutane may provide relief.

Gram-Negative Folliculitis

  • Gram-Negative Folliculitis is a rare bacterial infection characterized by cysts and pustules. Some dermatologists suggest that long-term antibiotic use to treat acne vulgaris may contribute to this condition. Limited knowledge exists about Gram-Negative Folliculitis, but Gram-negative folliculitis in acne and rosacea patients is best treated with isotretinoin (0.5-1 mg/kg daily for 4-5 months).

Acne Rosacea

  • Acne Rosacea is often mistaken for acne vulgaris due to their similar appearance. It is a common skin condition that affects millions worldwide. Typically, it manifests as a red rash confined to the nose, cheeks, chin, and forehead, accompanied by pimples, bumps, and blemishes. Unlike acne vulgaris, blackheads are not usually present in acne rosacea. Proper treatment by a dermatologist is essential, as many traditional acne treatments can exacerbate this condition. If left untreated, acne rosacea can cause facial swelling.

Pyoderma Faciale (Rosacea Fulminans)

  • Pyoderma Faciale, exclusively found in females, represents a severe form of acne. It is characterized by painful nodules, sores, and pustules. Pyoderma faciale often manifests suddenly and affects only the face. It can occur in women with no previous history of acne.


  • Chemical Peel: Chemical peels involve the application of a chemical solution to the skin, which exfoliates the outer layers, promoting cell turnover and unclogging pores. This treatment can help improve acne by reducing inflammation, removing dead skin cells, and minimizing the appearance of acne scars. Common chemical peels used for acne contain ingredients like alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs) or beta-hydroxy acids (BHAs).
  • Fotona Acne Laser: Fotona laser treatment targets acne by using laser energy to penetrate the skin and destroy the bacteria responsible for acne, reduce inflammation, and stimulate collagen production. It can also help to minimize sebum production and improve the appearance of acne scars.
  • Oral Medication: Oral medications for acne may be prescribed by  our dermatologist to address underlying causes or severe cases. These medications can include antibiotics to reduce bacterial infection, hormonal therapies to regulate hormonal imbalances, or isotretinoin (Accutane) for severe and persistent acne.
  • Topical Medication: Topical medications are applied directly to the skin and come in various forms, such as creams, gels, or lotions. They often contain ingredients like retinoids, benzoyl peroxide, or antibiotics, which can help reduce inflammation, unclog pores, kill bacteria, and regulate skin cell turnover.

Consultation with a dermatologist at Klinik Hana is crucial to determine the most suitable treatment plan for each individual’s specific acne condition. The dermatologist will consider factors like the severity of acne, skin type, medical history, and potential side effects before recommending the appropriate treatment option. Regular follow-ups and open communication with the dermatologist are essential for monitoring progress and adjusting the treatment plan if needed.


In this article, we have delved into various treatments offered at Klinik Hana that can help tackle your acne concerns. However, we understand that every individual’s skin is unique, and finding the right treatment requires personalized care and expertise. That’s why we encourage you to visit Klinik Hana for a comprehensive consultation and discover the best approach for your specific needs.

If you have tried numerous remedies without satisfactory results or if your acne has worsened, our dedicated dermatologists at Klinik Hana are here to help. With their extensive knowledge and expertise in the latest technologies, they will provide tailored solutions to address your acne problems. Rest assured that you will receive quality care at an affordable price compared to other establishments, all while ensuring your safety.


Alongside seeking professional assistance, it is crucial to adopt preventive measures to minimize the likelihood of acne breakouts. Here are some key tips to incorporate into your routine:

  • Maintain a Consistent Skincare Routine: Cleanse your face gently twice a day, using products suitable for your skin type. Avoid harsh scrubbing, which can irritate the skin and trigger breakouts.
  • Keep Your Hands off Your Face: Refrain from touching your face frequently, as it can transfer dirt, bacteria, and oil to your skin, leading to clogged pores and acne.
  • Follow a Healthy Lifestyle: Incorporate a well-balanced diet, regular exercise, and adequate sleep into your lifestyle. These factors contribute to overall skin health.
  • Avoid Picking or Squeezing Pimples: Although it may be tempting, avoid popping or squeezing pimples, as it can worsen inflammation, increase the risk of scarring, and introduce more bacteria to the affected area.

Remember, acne is a complex condition, and seeking guidance from a dermatologist is vital for effective management. Take the first step towards clearer, healthier skin by visiting Klinik Hana today. Our team is dedicated to helping you achieve the best possible results. Book your consultation now and let us guide you on your journey to acne-free skin.

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Canpolat, Filiz & Kurmus Gokce & Gonul, Muzeyyen. (2018). Acne Conglobata. Retrieved from 

Zaba, Ryszard & Schwartz, Ra & Jarmuda, S & Czarnecka-Operacz, Magdalena & Silny, W. (2010). Acne fulminans: Explosive systemic form of acne. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV. 25. 501-7. 10.1111/j.1468-3083.2010.03855.x. Retrieved from 

Engin, Burhan & Oba, Muazzez & Kutlubay, Zekayi & Serdaroglu, Server & Tuzun, Yalcın. (2017). Acne Rosacea. 10.5772/65636. Retrieved from 

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